中国产桫椤类配子体在不同基质胁迫下的形态畸变多样性研究
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引用本文:肖 湘,陈贵菊,张 雪,纪善博,刘保东.中国产桫椤类配子体在不同基质胁迫下的形态畸变多样性研究[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(6):1042~1052
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作者单位
肖 湘1,陈贵菊2,张 雪1,纪善博1,刘保东1,3* (1 哈尔滨师范大学哈尔滨 1500252 山东省济宁市农业科学研究院山东济宁 2720313 黑龙江省普通高等学校植物生物学重点实验室哈尔滨 150025) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31770350)
中文摘要:为了明确土壤污染对中国产桫椤科植物的生殖影响,以探讨中国桫椤类乃至其他濒危蕨类濒危的内在原因。该研究以中国产9种桫椤植物为材料,采用各植物原产地地表土壤培养孢子至配子体成熟,全程比较观察配子体畸变类型,统计畸变率;并分别取3个属的代表种笔筒树、大叶黑桫椤和中华桫椤的孢子,以MS培养基为对照,分别用5 mg·kg-1Pb2+和1 mg·kg-1Cd2+单因素胁迫培养配子体,比较观察各组的配子体形态畸变类型,统计畸变率。结果表明:(1)中国产桫椤类9种植物配子体培养过程中共出现17种形态畸变类型,其中4种为分化畸变,7种为假根畸变,4种为细胞畸变,2种为性器畸变。(2)不同培养基——对照组(MS培养基)、原产地土壤、Cd2+胁迫、Pb2+胁迫对中国产桫椤科9种植物配子体的平均畸变比例分别是2.28%、12.61%、31.58%和33.58%。(3) 9种桫椤的配子体畸变类型及其畸变率均与培养基的胁迫程度呈正相关关系,其配子体发育都受到了产地土壤污染的严重伤害。(4) 3种桫椤属植物配子体对土壤环境胁迫的耐受力强弱为黑桫椤属>白桫椤属>桫椤属。(5)桫椤科配子体的形态畸变多样性与胁迫条件之间具有稳定的对应关系。
中文关键词:桫椤科植物  配子体  培养基胁迫  形态畸变多样性
 
Gametophyte Morphological Aberration Diversity of Chinese Cyatheaceae under Different Substrate
Abstract:In order to determine the reproductive effects of soil pollution on Chinese Cyatheaceae and explore the underlying causes of the endangered species of Chinese Cyatheaceae and other endangered ferns, were cultured the spores of nine species of Chinese Cyatheaceae to be mature gametophytes in the surface soil from their source area. The aberration types of gametophytes were observed and the aberration rate was calculated. And the spores of three representative species of genera, Sphaeropteris lepifera, Gymnosphaera gigantea and Alsophila costularis, were taken respectively. MS medium was taken as the control group, the gametophytes were cultured under univariate stress of 5 mg·kg-1 Pb2+and 1 mg·kg-1 Cd2+, respectively, and then the types of morphological aberration of gametophytes and their aberration rates were compared and observed. The results showed that: (1) it was observed that 17 morphological aberrations occurred in the gametophyte culture of 9 kinds of Chinese Cyatheaceae, including four differentiation aberration, seven rhizoid aberration, four cell aberration and two reproductive organs aberration. (2) The aberration gametophytic ratio on different media——control group, soils from source area, Cd2+ stress, and Pb2+ stress was 2.28%, 12.61%, 31.58% and 33.58% in turn. (3) The types and rates of gametophyte aberration in all 9 types of Cyatheaceae were positively correlated with the stress degree of the medium, the development of their gametophytes has been seriously damaged by soil pollution. (4) Resistance of gametophytes of three species of Cyatheaceae to soil environmental stress from strong to weak, in turn, was Gymnosphaera, Sphaeropteris, and Alsophila. (5) There was a stable relationship between the diversity of morphological aberration and stress conditions of the gametophytes.
keywords:Cyatheaceae  gametophyte  medium stress  morphological aberration diversity
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