盐碱胁迫对垂丝海棠光合作用及渗透调节物质的影响
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引用本文:刘 兵,贾旭梅,朱祖雷,张 瑞,赵 通,王延秀.盐碱胁迫对垂丝海棠光合作用及渗透调节物质的影响[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(9):1618~1626
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刘 兵,贾旭梅,朱祖雷,张 瑞,赵 通,王延秀* (甘肃农业大学 园艺学院兰州 730070) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31960581)
中文摘要:该研究以2年生垂丝海棠(Malus halliana Koehne)实生苗为研究材料,设置盐胁迫(NaCl)、盐碱混合胁迫(NaCl+NaHCO3 ,1∶1)和碱胁迫(NaHCO3)3类处理,并以清水作为对照(CK),通过盆栽的方法测定不同时间点垂丝海棠叶片光合色素含量、光合作用参数、叶绿素荧光参数、相对电导率及渗透调节物质含量的变化,以探讨不同盐碱胁迫下垂丝海棠的生理响应特性。结果表明:(1)3种盐碱胁迫条件下,随着胁迫时间的延长,垂丝海棠植株叶片光合色素(叶绿素a、b和类胡萝卜素)的合成受到抑制,且以碱胁迫处理下降低最为明显,碱胁迫40 d后叶绿素a(Chl a)、叶绿素b(Chl b)及类胡萝卜素(Car)分别降低67.18%、68.90%和64.67%。(2)垂丝海棠叶片的净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)在3种盐碱胁迫下均显著低于CK,而碱处理、盐碱混合处理下的胞间CO2浓度(Ci),在胁迫20 d时较CK分别升高137.13%和77.66%,胁迫40 d后,则分别降低56.82%和51.89%。(3)随胁迫时间的延长,3种盐碱胁迫处理下的垂丝海棠植株叶片PSⅡ实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、最大荧光(Fm)、光化学淬灭系数(qP)和最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)均受到抑制,但碱胁迫下的初始荧光(F0)与盐处理和盐碱混合处理的非光化学淬灭系数(qN)则表现为升高趋势,且于胁迫40 d后,较CK分别升高60.98%、90.70%和99.15%。(4)胁迫40 d后,盐处理、碱处理及盐碱混合处理植株叶片的相对电导率(REC)分别比CK升高了9.39%、35.07%和29.32%,同时各处理胁迫40 d后的可溶性糖(SS)、脯氨酸(Pro)、有机酸(OA)显著高于CK,且OA对盐碱混合处理更为敏感,其含量显著高于盐处理和碱处理。(5)3种胁迫对垂丝海棠生长和光合的抑制作用表现为碱处理>盐碱混合处理>盐处理。研究发现,垂丝海棠植株的光合作用受到3种盐碱胁迫的显著抑制,并以碱胁迫的影响程度更大,但其能通过渗透调节物质来应对胁迫,有效缓解盐碱胁迫的伤害,增强自身耐盐碱能力。
中文关键词:垂丝海棠  盐碱胁迫  光合色素  光合作用参数  叶绿素荧光参数  渗透调节物质
 
Effect of Saline alkali on Photosynthesis and Osmotic Regulation Substances of Malus halliana Koehne
Abstract:In this study, 2 year old Malus halliana Koehne were treated under salt stress (NaCl), salt alkali mixed stress (NaCl+NaHCO3, 1∶1), alkali stress (NaHCO3) and water as the control (CK). The changes of pigment content, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, relative conductivity and osmotic adjustment substance content of Malus halliana Koehne leaves at different time points were determined by pot experiment to explore the physiological response characteristics of M. halliana Koehne under different saline alkali stress. The results suggested that: (1) under three saline alkali stress conditions, the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) in leaves of M. halliana Koehne was inhibited with the prolongation of stress time, and the decrease was most obvious under alkali stress. After 40 days of stress, Chl a, Chl b and Car decreased by 67.18%, 68.90% and 64.67%, respectively. (2) The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) of M. halliana Koehne leaves were inhibited under three saline alkali stresses and significantly lower than CK, while the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) under alkali and saline alkali treatments increased by 137.13% and 77.66% respectively after 20 d of stress, and decreased by 56.82% and 51.89% respectively after 40 d of stress. (3) With the extension of stress time, the actual photochemistry efficiency (ΦPSⅡ), maximum fluorescence (Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of M. halliana Koehne leaves were inhibited under three saline alkali stresses. However, the initial fluorescence (F0) and the non photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) of salt treatment and salt alkali mixed treatment showed an increasing trend under alkali stress, and increased by 60.98%, 90.70%, 99.15% respectively after 40 days of stress compared with CK. (4) Compared with CK, the relative electrical conductivity (REC) of leaves in salt, alkali and salt alkali treatments increased by 9.39%, 35.07% and 29.32% respectively after 40 days of stress. At the same time, soluble sugar (SS), proline (Pro), organic acid (OA) of leaves were significantly higher than that of CK after 40 days of stress, and OA was more sensitive to salt alkali mixed treatment. The amount was significantly higher than that of salt treatment and alkali treatment. (5) The growth and photosynthesis of M. halliana Koehne under three stresses were inhibited by alkali treatment > salt alkali mixed treatment > Salt treatment. It was found that the photosynthesis of M. halliana Koehne was significantly inhibited by three saline alkali stresses, and the effect of alkali stress was greater, but it could cope with the stress by osmotic regulators, effectively alleviate the damage of saline alkali stress and enhance its salt alkali tolerance.
keywords:Malus halliana Koehne  saline alkali stress  photosynthetic pigment  photosynthetic parameters  photosynthetic fluorescence parameters  osmotic regulators
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