高温对番茄幼苗生长和花芽分化的影响
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引用本文:袁慧敏,王革伏,樊佳茹,张贝贝,张 璐,刘 爽.高温对番茄幼苗生长和花芽分化的影响[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(10):1768~1775
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作者单位
袁慧敏1,王革伏1,2,樊佳茹1,张贝贝1,张 璐1,刘 爽1* (1 福建农林大学 园艺学院 福建农林大学 戴尔豪西大学联合实验室福州 350002 2 戴尔豪西大学 农学院 植物食品和环境科学系加拿大新斯科舍 B2N5E3) 
基金项目:福建省闽江学者科研基金(116 114120019)
中文摘要:为了探讨高温胁迫对番茄幼苗生长和花芽分化的影响,该试验以‘中杂9号’番茄为材料,以25 ℃/15 ℃(昼/夜)为对照(CK),进行37 ℃/27 ℃(昼/夜)的高温处理,测定番茄幼苗生长和花芽分化相关指标。结果表明:从高温处理第3天开始番茄幼苗株高和节间长显著高于对照,而茎粗显著小于对照,即植株出现徒长;高温处理的番茄叶面积、根系表面积一直显著低于常温对照,而根系体积、根系总长和分根数也从第3天开始显著低于对照水平;高温处理的植株花芽分化进程从第1天起就明显加快,高温处理第9天时花芽分化数显著减少,而花芽大小高温处理后1~5 d大于对照,从第7天起高温处理植株的花芽大小显著低于对照。研究表明,高温抑制番茄幼苗营养生长,加快番茄花芽分化进程,减少花芽分化数,并减小花芽大小,最终导致产量降低。
中文关键词:高温  番茄  生长  花芽分化
 
Effect of High Temperature Stress on Growth and Floral Bud Differentiation of Tomato Seedlings
Abstract:In order to explore the effects of high temperature stress on tomato seedling growth and flower bud differentiation, we subjected ‘Zhongza 9’ tomato seedlings to high temperature treatments with 37 ℃/27 ℃ (day/night) when it grew to the critical point of flower bud differentiation, 25 ℃/15 ℃ (day/night) was set as control. The indicators related to the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings were determined. The results showed that the plant height and internode length of tomato seedlings were significantly longer than that of the control from the third day of high temperature stress, and the stem diameter was significantly smaller than that of the control, that is, the plants appeared to be long. The leaf area and root surface area of tomato treated with high temperature were always significantly lower than that of normal temperature control, while the root volume, total root length and number of roots were significantly lower than that of control from the 3rd day. The flower bud differentiation process at high temperature treatment accelerated significantly from the 1st day, and the number of flower bud differentiation decreased significantly on the 9th day of high temperature treatment, while the flower bud size was larger than that of control 5 days before high temperature treatment, and the flower bud size of the high temperature treated plant was significantly lower from the 7th day. This study clarified that high temperature inhibited the vegetative growth of tomato seedlings, accelerated the flower bud differentiation process, reduced the number of flower bud differentiation, and reduced the size of flower buds, eventually leading to a decrease in yield.
keywords:high temperature  tomato  growth  flower bud differentiation
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