保水剂对露地栽培花生产量和品质的影响
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引用本文:厉广辉,李长生,王兴军,赵传志,赵术珍,侯 蕾.保水剂对露地栽培花生产量和品质的影响[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(11):2037~2043
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作者单位
厉广辉,李长生,王兴军,赵传志,赵术珍,侯 蕾* (山东省农业科学院 生物技术研究中心/山东省作物遗传改良与生态生理重点实验室济南 250100) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金国际(地区)合作与交流项目(31861143009);
中文摘要:该研究设置覆膜和露地施用不同量保水剂处理(75 kg·km-2、150 kg·km-2、225 kg·km-2),以露地栽培为对照,研究不同保水剂用量和覆膜对花生荚果成熟饱满度、产量和营养品质的影响,为旱地花生合理使用保水剂及开发新型节水栽培技术提供理论依据。结果显示:(1)保水剂施用量在75~225 kg·hm-2,花生荚果产量较对照提高3.48%~16.01%,且随施用量增加呈先增加后降低的趋势,其中150 kg·hm-2保水剂处理的花生产量最高,但与覆膜处理差异不显著。(2)覆膜显著增加了花生成熟饱满度,饱果率和饱仁率分别比对照增加14.62%和14.11%;成熟饱满度随保水剂用量增加呈先增加后降低的趋势,且150 kg·hm-2保水剂处理最高,饱果率和饱仁率分别比对照增加10.99%和15.99%。(3)覆膜和保水剂均增加了花生脂肪、油酸含量和油酸/亚油酸(O/L)比值,普通样品(能够形成产量的籽仁)的增幅显著大于标准样品(饱满一致的籽仁),且150 kg·hm-2处理的普通样品分别比露地栽培提高了9.66%、12.27%和23.08%,但与覆膜处理差异不显著。研究表明,施用150 kg·hm-2保水剂可显著提高花生成熟饱满度、产量和品质,主要通过提高普通样品的营养成分来改善品质,与覆膜效果基本一致。
中文关键词:花生  保水剂  成熟饱满度  产量  品质
 
Effect of Superabsorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Quality of Peanut under Un mulching Cultivation
Abstract:In this work, a field study was conducted to investigate pod plumpness, yield, nutrition quality under un mulching (UM), mulching film (FM) and superabsorbent polymer (SP) conditions to explore the effect of FM and SP on water saving. SP was furrowed into the ridge at the rate of 75, 150 and 225 kg·hm-2 before sowing. We hope to provide a theoretical basis for rational application of superabsorbent polymer and developing a new technology for water saving in dry region peanut. The results showed that: (1) pod yield under SP (75~225 kg·hm-2) was 3.48%~16.01% higher compared to UM. When the SP amount applied increased, the yield increased first and then decreased. The yield was the highest when 150 kg·hm-2 of SP (SP150) was applied. However, the yield of the SP150 was no significant (P>0.05) difference from FM. (2) Compared with UM, the plump rate of pods and seeds significantly increased under FM, it was 14.62% and 14.11% higher. The plump rate of pods and seeds gradually increased before SP150 was applied, then decreased with the amount of SP increased continuously. It was 10.99% and 15.99% higher than UM when the SP150 condition. (3) Quality analysis demonstrated that quality traits including fat, oleic acid, the ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid (O/L) of all seeds under FM and SP treatments were higher compared to UM. The general sample including all seeds with economic value increased more than the typical sample containing only plump and consistent seeds. The fat and oleicacid content, O/L of general sample increased by 9.66%, 12.27%, 23.08% compared to UM when SP150 was applied. While it was no significant difference from FM. All these results indicate that SP had positive effect on yield and quality of peanut. The SP application of 150 kg·hm-2 improved most pod plumpness and yield, increased quality traits of peanut seeds mainly by the general sample. It was basically the same as FM.
keywords:peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  superabsorbent polymer  plumpness  yield  quality
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