赤霉素和温水浸种对紫斑牡丹种子下胚轴萌发及其种胚解剖结构的影响
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引用本文:张双羽,唐 红,李婉茹,张 瑞,何丽霞.赤霉素和温水浸种对紫斑牡丹种子下胚轴萌发及其种胚解剖结构的影响[J].西北植物学报,2020,40(3):442~453
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作者单位
张双羽1,唐 红1*,李婉茹1,张 瑞1,何丽霞2 (1 甘肃农业大学 林学院兰州 7300702 甘肃省牡丹工程研究中心兰州 730046) 
基金项目:甘肃省牡丹工程研究中心(XZ20181120);
中文摘要:以紫斑牡丹种子为试验材料,采用不同浓度(0、100、300、500 mg/L)赤霉素(GA3)浸种和不同温度温水浸种(25、30、40和50 ℃)处理,考察各处理种子生根率的变化,并通过透射电镜观察不同生根发育时期种子种胚超微结构,探究赤霉素和温水浸种处理解除紫斑牡丹种子休眠进程中种胚超微结构变化以及这种变化与休眠解除的相关性。结果表明:(1)GA3和温水浸种均明显提前了紫斑牡丹种子生根时间,并以300 mg/L GA3和40 ℃温水处理的生根效果最好,分别较对照提前14.7 d和16.0 d,生根率分别达62.33%和67.00%。(2)光学显微镜观察发现,GA3、温水浸种处理较对照组紫斑牡丹种胚子叶的上、下表皮细胞形状及排列方式无明显影响,但其厚度均变薄,维管束结构明显,以300 mg/L GA3和40 ℃温水浸种处理生根效果最佳。(3)透射电镜观察发现,在各GA3浸种和温水浸种处理下,紫斑牡丹种子萌发前期,种胚子叶脂类物质出现降解现象,脂体呈大小不一的圆形或块状分布在细胞壁周边,数量明显减少,细胞核明显,核仁清晰,出现少量线粒体,细胞质内开始有蛋白质积累,在液泡的周围形成蛋白质沉积物;在种子萌发后期,种胚子叶细胞内物质稠密,脂体已降解融合成较大块状,细胞中储存的营养物质基本降解完全,内质网、高尔基体、线粒体等细胞器出现,结构更加完整,表明此时细胞内物质代谢活动加强,种子休眠解除,且300 mg/L GA3、40 ℃温水浸种处理种子种胚子叶结构变化最为明显。研究发现,300 mg/L GA3浸种和40 ℃温水浸种均可显著提高种子的萌发率,且40 ℃温水浸种的效果更好,在实际生产中建议使用温水浸种法。
中文关键词:紫斑牡丹  赤霉素  温水  浸种  种胚  破除休眠  超微结构
 
Hypocotyl Germination and Cotyledon Anatomical Structure of Paeonia rockii Seeds by Soaking with Gibberellic Acid and Warm Water
Abstract:The study used seeds of Paeonia rockii treated with different concentrations of gibberellic acid (0,100,300,500 mg/L) and different temperatures (normal 25,30,40 and 50 ℃). The change of seed rooting rate of each treatment was investigated, and the ultrastructure of seed embryo at different rooting stages was observed by transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The ultrastructural changes of seed embryo in the process of dormancy release of Paeonia rockii seeds and the correlation between the changes and dormancy release were explored. Result show that: (1) GA3 and warm water treatment significantly advanced the rooting time, and 300 mg/L GA3 and 40 ℃ warm water treatment had the best rooting effect, 14.7 and 16.0 d earlier than the control, and the rooting rate was 62.33% and 67.00%. (2) The results of optical microscope showed that GA3 and warm water treatment had no significant effect on the shape and arrangement of the upper and lower epidermal cells of the cotyledons, but the thickness of the cotyledons was thinner and the vascular bundle structure was obvious. The best rooting effect was 300 mg/L GA3 and 40 ℃. (3) TEM showed that the lipid in the cotyledons of the seeds of Paeonia rockii was degraded in the early stage of germination and the lipid bodies were distributed around the cell wall in different sizes. The number of lipid bodies was obviously reduced. The nucleus was clear, a small number of mitochondria appeared, protein began to accumulate in the cytoplasm, and around the vacuole formation of protein deposits. In the later stage of seed germination, the matter in the cotyledons of seed embryo is dense, the lipid bodies have been degraded and fused into a larger mass, the nutrients stored in the cells are basically degraded completely, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi body, mitochondria and other organelles appeared. The structure is more complete, which indicates that the material metabolism activity in the cells is strengthened at this time and the seed dormancy is relieved. The results showed that the germination rate of seeds could be significantly improved by soaking seeds in 300 mg/L GA3 and 40 ℃ warm water, and the effect of soaking seeds in 40 ℃ warm water was better, so it was better to use more warm water soaking method in actual production.
keywords:Paeonia rockii  gibberellic acid (GA3)  warm water  soaking seeds  embryo  dormancy breaking  ultrastructure
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