额尔齐斯河流域垂枝桦林群落结构特征与物种多样性相关分析
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引用本文:刘召强,刘艺平,冯理明,贺 丹,孔德政.额尔齐斯河流域垂枝桦林群落结构特征与物种多样性相关分析[J].西北植物学报,2020,40(3):532~542
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作者单位
刘召强,刘艺平,冯理明,贺 丹,孔德政* (河南农业大学 林学院郑州 450002) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 (31600568)
中文摘要:为阐明植物群落结构特征和物种多样性之间的相互关系,选择额尔齐斯河流域白桦林国家森林公园的天然垂枝桦(Betula pendula)纯林、垂枝桦苦杨混交林、垂枝桦白柳混交林为研究对象,分林层调查群落的基本特征参数(高度、枝下高、冠幅、胸径、盖度等),计算物种重要值、丰富度指数、多样性指数、均匀度指数,并进行典范对应分析。结果表明:(1)垂枝桦白柳混交林的乔木层树高、枝下高和灌木层的地径、盖度均最高; 3种群落的草本层特征参数(除基径)均具有显著差异;垂枝桦白柳林的盖度分别比垂枝桦苦杨林和垂枝桦纯林高19.1%和51.8%。(2)3种群落的乔木层重要值最高为垂枝桦,灌木层为疏花蔷薇(Rosa laxa)、阿尔泰山楂(Crataegus altaica),草本层为莎薹草(Carex bohemica)。(3)3种群落类型中乔木层的丰富度指数R、Simpson指数、Shannon Wiener指数和灌木层的Pielou指数、Alatalo指数呈现出相同规律,即垂枝桦白柳混交林>垂枝桦苦杨混交林>垂枝桦纯林;草本层中除Alatalo指数之外,其他指数均呈现垂枝桦纯林>垂枝桦苦杨混交林>垂枝桦白柳混交林(P>0.05)。(4)CCA排序结果表明,不同垂枝桦林群落结构特征与物种多样性关系有差异。其中,垂枝桦纯林中,对物种多样性影响最大的是乔木枝下高、灌木株高、冠幅以及草本盖度;垂枝桦苦杨混交林中,对物种多样性影响最大的是乔木高度和冠幅、灌木冠幅和草本高度;垂枝桦白柳林中,对物种多样性影响最大的是乔木胸径、灌木冠幅、盖度以及草本高度。研究表明,乔木枝下高度、灌木冠幅、草本高度是影响3种群落类型物种多样性的主要因素。
中文关键词:群落结构特征  物种多样性  CCA  额尔齐斯河流域  垂枝桦
 
Differences in Community Characteristics, Species Diversity, and Their Coupling Associations among Betula pendula Forests in Irtysh River Watershed
Abstract:To explore the coupling relationship between forest community characteristics and species diversity, three typical communities (Pure forest of B. pendula [PFB], we selected Mixed forest of B. pendula with Populus laurifolia [MFBP], and Mixed forest of B. pendula with Salix alba [MFBS]), in brich forest national forest park Irtysh river, to survey the community characteristics (height, tree bole height, diameter at breast height, crown width, coverage, and others). According to these indices, richness index, diversity indexes and evenness indexes were calculated, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed. The results showed that: (1) the maximum height and clear tree bole height of the arbor layer and the canopy coverage and ground diameter of the shrub layer all occurred in MFTS; there were significant differences in the herb layer (except base diameter); the herb coverage of the MFBS was 19.1% and 51.8% higher than that in the MFBP and PFB. (2) In three different forests, the important value of Betula pendula in the arbor layer was maximal, and the dominative species in the shrub layer were Rosa laxa and Crataegus altaica, and that in the herb layer was Carex bohemica. (3) The mean species richness, Simpson index and Shannon Wiener index of the arbor layer and Pielou index, Alatalo index of the shrub layer showed the same pattern, i.e., MFBS > MFBP > PFB. However, the herb layer exhibited a different order, not include Alatalo index, with PFB > MFBP > MFBS (P > 0.05). (4) CCA showed that the correspondence associations between community characteristics and species diversity differed among the three forest types. In the pure forest of B. pendula, tree clear bole height, the height and crown width of the shrub, height of the herb had the highest impact on species diversity. In the mixed forest of B. pendula with Populus laurifolia, the height and crown width of the tree, shrub crown width and herb height had the highest impact on species diversity. In the mixed forest of B. pendula with Salix alba, the DBH, the crown width and coverage of the shrub, the height of herb had the highest impact on species diversity. The results showed that for all three forests the characteristics of the tree clear bole height and crown width of the shrub and herb height had a substantial influence on plant species diversity.
keywords:community characteristics  species diversity  Canonical Correspondence Analysis  Irtysh River watershed  Betula pendula
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