乙烯利对库尔勒香梨果实发育进程和品质的影响
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引用本文:邵白俊杰,田 嘉,郝志超,王 乾,张 峰,温 玥.乙烯利对库尔勒香梨果实发育进程和品质的影响[J].西北植物学报,2023,43(2):265~275
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作者单位
邵白俊杰1,田 嘉1,郝志超1,王 乾1,张 峰2,温 玥1* (1 新疆农业大学 园艺学院乌鲁木齐 8300522 库尔勒市香梨研究中心新疆库尔勒 841000) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(32160686);中国博士后科学基金(2021M693900);新疆农业大学高层次人才科研培育计划项目
中文摘要:以库尔勒香梨为试材,在大蕾期喷施不同浓度乙烯利,调查库尔勒香梨萼片脱落率,观测果实生长发育进程和落果情况,测定成熟期果实品质,并基于主成分分析法对乙烯利处理下的果实品质进行综合评价,以揭示乙烯利对库尔勒香梨果实生长发育进程和果实品质的影响,为筛选最优乙烯利浓度应用于提高库尔勒香梨果实品质提供理论依据和技术支持。结果表明:(1)2021年自然生长状态下(对照)库尔勒香梨萼片脱落时间为9 d,不同浓度乙烯利处理后脱落时间会缩短1~2 d,且随着处理浓度梯度的升高,萼片脱落时间和萼片脱落高峰提前。(2)库尔勒香梨果实生长发育期约为130 d,乙烯利处理下和自然状态下的果实生长发育均呈“S”型曲线的变化趋势;乙烯利处理明显加快了果实成熟的速度,果实在花后110 d左右已达到成熟标准,从而可以确定合理的采收时间,并以300 mg·L-1乙烯利处理下脱萼果和宿萼果的纵横径和单果重增长最大;乙烯利处理下库尔勒香梨在第二次果实膨大期间落果较多,在花后50 d和110 d左右出现落果高峰,并以200 mg·L-1乙烯利处理对库尔勒香梨果形指数和落果率的影响最明显。(3)300 mg·L-1乙烯利处理对库尔勒香梨果实品质影响最大,宿萼果纵、横径和单果重较对照分别显著增加5.02%、10.90%和11.40%,脱萼果鲜干比重、可溶性固形物含量、VC含量和可溶性糖含量比对照分别显著提高5.67%、12.03%、21.48%和10.22%,脱萼果硬度和可滴定酸含量比对照分别显著降低10.10%和19.75%。(4)主成分分析显示,各浓度乙烯利处理下库尔勒香梨综合品质得分从高到低依次为300 mg·L-1脱萼果、300 mg·L-1宿萼果、200 mg·L-1宿萼果、200 mg·L-1脱萼果、100 mg·L-1脱萼果、100 mg·L-1宿萼果、CK脱萼果和CK宿萼果。研究发现,大蕾期喷施乙烯利促进了库尔勒香梨萼片的脱落,明显加快了果实的生长发育进程,并可有效提高果实品质,且以300 mg·L-1乙烯利处理对库尔勒香梨果实品质改善效果最优。
中文关键词:乙烯利  库尔勒香梨  果实发育进程  果实品质  主成分分析
 
Effects of Ethephon on Fruit Developmental Process and Quality of Korla Fragrant Pear
Abstract:Korla fragrant pear was used as test material, we sprayed different concentrations of ethephon during the large bud stage to investigate the shedding rate of sepals of Korla fragrant pear, observe the fruit growth and development process and fruit drop, determine the fruit quality at the ripening stage, and based on the principal component analysis, we comprehensively evaluated the fruit quality under ethephon treatment to explore the impact of ethephon on the fruit growth and development process and fruit quality, which provides theoretical basis and technical support for screening the optimal ethephon concentration to improve the fruit quality. The results showed that: (1) in 2021, the shedding time of sepals of Korla fragrant pear was 9 days in the natural growth state (control), and the shedding time was shortened by 1-2 days after treatment with different concentrations of ethephon, and with the increase of the treatment concentration gradient, the sepal shedding time and sepal shedding peak were earlier. (2) The fruit growth and development period of Korla fragrant pear is about 130 days. The fruit growth and development under ethephon treatment and natural state show a “S” curve change trend. The ethephon treatment significantly accelerated the speed of fruit ripening, and the fruit had reached the ripening standard about 110 days after flowering, so that a reasonable harvest time could be determined. The length and width and single fruit weight of decalyx and persistent calyx fruits increased the most under the treatment of 300 mg·L-1 ethephon. Under ethephon treatment, Korla fragrant pear dropped more fruits during the second fruit expansion period, and the peak of fruit drop appeared at 50 and 110 days after flowering, and 200 mg·L-1 ethephon treatment had the most obvious effect on the fruit shape index and fruit drop rate of Korla fragrant pear. (3) Compared with the control,300 mg·L-1 ethephon treatment had the greatest impact on the fruit quality of Korla fragrant pear. The vertical and horizontal diameter and single fruit weight of persistent calyx fruits increased by 5.02%, 10.90% and 11.40%, respectively. The fresh weight/dry weight, soluble solids content, VC content and soluble sugar content of calyx free fruits increased by 5.67%, 12.03%, 21.48% and 10.22%, and the hardness and titratable acid content of calyx free fruits decreased by 10.10%, 19.75%, respectively. (4) The results of principal component analysis showed that the comprehensive quality scores of Korla fragrant pears treated with different concentrations of ethephon were ranked as follows: 300 mg·L-1 decalyx fruit>300 mg·L-1 persistent calyx fruit>200 mg·L-1 persistent calyx fruit>200 mg·L-1 decalyx fruit>100 mg·L-1 decalyx fruit> 100 mg·L-1 persistent calyx fruit > CK decalyx fruit > CK persistent calyx fruit. Spraying ethephon at the big bud stage promoted the detachment of the sepals of Korla fragrant pear, significantly accelerated the growth and development process of fruit, and could effectively improve the fruit quality. To sum up, 300 mg·L-1 ethephon treatment had the best effect on improving the fruit quality of Korla fragrant pear.
keywords:ethephon  Korla fragrant pear  fruit developmental process  fruit quality  principal component analysis
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